Diabetes

Diabetes: thirst, polyuria, hyperglycemia (fasting > 126, OGTT > 200, random > 200) and A1C > 6.5, C peptide (type I = low, type II = high), causes microvascular damage: eyes, nerves, kidneys


Browse disease: Endocrine | Neuro | Renal | GI | Cardio | Respiratory | Hemonc
  • Diabetes
  • aka: DM, Diabetes mellitus,
  • thirst, polyuria, hyperglycemia (fasting > 126, OGTT > 200, random > 200) and A1C > 6.5, C peptide (type I = low, type II = high), causes microvascular damage: eyes, nerves, kidneys
  • Thirst, polyuria, nocturia. Ketoacidosis (fruity breath), Type 1 (kids, wt loss), type 2 (obese).
  • dehydration (polyuria), lens/cataracts, retinopathy (eye exam), neuropathy (foot exam), nephropathy (bp++)
  • hyperglycemia (fasting > 126, random > 200), A1C > 6.5, OGTT, C peptide (type I = low, type II = high), glucosuria, ketoacidosis (metab acidosis w ketones), nephropathy (proteinuria, GFR↓, bp↑)
  • Type 1 don't produce insulin. Type 2 don't respond to insulin. Damage to microvasculature causes retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy
  • Type 1 = give insulin. Type 2 = lifestyle (exercise, quit smoking), metformin. Routine eye, foot exams, and monitor glc, A1C (< 6.5), bp (ACE inh, ARB), albumin
  • OGTT = oral glc tolerance test: positive if glc > 200 after eating glc (1.75g/kg)